The Implementation Plan of GAME-Tropics
Japan sub-Committee for GAME-Tropics
Draft at July 1996
Among GEWEX/GAME research components, GAME-T's role is to
observe and investigate the energy and water cycle in the warm humid
areas of the Asia Monsoon region, from tropics to sub-tropics.
These areas are characterized by small seasonal change of temperature
and a predominant diurnal cycle of temperature and precipitation.
The annual variability of surface soil wetness is quite large where dry
season is observed, and inter-annual variation of precipitation
is as significant as diurnal cycle in the tropical area where
the seasonal change is small. As a heat source for atmosphere,
the release of latent heat in this region is largest on the earth,
and it drives the circulation of the Asian Monsoon.
On the other hand, the density of population in this region
is generally high, and the crop (rice) production supporting
these large population is directly related to the variation
of the precipitation during the Asian Monsoon. Therefore the
seasonal prediction of precipitation by the construction of
adequate combined land-atmosphere numerical model is not
only challenging scientifically but also contributing to
societal issues through improving the accuracy of water
resources prediction. The high density of population is
closely related to the relatively high density of the
existing observational network of hydrological and meteorological
The goal of GAME-T is to accomplish its role well
considering these characteristics of the target area
as one of key sub-programs of GEWEX/GAME.
As a part of GEWEX/GAME, the objective of GAME-T is quantitative
monitoring of vapor flux, precipitation, evapotranspiration,
radiative flux and their seasonal, intra-seasonal and interannual
variation at the target areas of the warm humid temperate region in the
south-east Asia. Especially,
are focused on, and their effect on the energy and water flux
from land surface including vegetation will be carefully observed
and investigated. Of course,
- the surface wetness which differs significantly in the
dry and wet season, and
- the diurnal cycle of precipitation and other hydro-meteorological
variables which is dominant in the tropical area
are vital issues of the research in GAME-T.
- dynamical studies on the hierarchical structures of
cloud-precipitation systems which consist of:
- individual clouds generated locally and micro-physically,
- cloud clusters or tropical cyclones moving from
the South China Sea or the Bay of Bengal, and
- super clusters or convection centers organized by
coupled effects of the Indian and Pacific Oceans,
- the better understanding of the effect of the interannual variation
of precipitation on the yield of rice in this region, and
- improving the accuracy of the seasonal prediction of precipitation
In a global sense, Fig. 3.1
shows the correlation of
rainfall in Thailand from May to July and the SOI
of November at the same year. Their inter-annual variations are
it is suggested that at least the energy and water cycle in Thailand
can be a good measure of the variation of global climate system.
For the collection of existing hydro-meteorological observation,
the target area of GAME-T covers as large as possible in the warm
humid region of the South East Asia.
Additional installation of observational
instruments and enhanced observation will be put into practice in the
ChaoPhraya river basin in Thailand, forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, and
Sri Lanka (Fig. 3.2).
Corresponding to the strategy of GEWEX/GAME, water and energy
cycles will be studied from several approaches.
The year of 1998 is the target period of Intensive Observation, but
will be carried out at 1996 and 1997, and additional observation is
expected in 1999. Intensive observation, which cannot be done continuously
for a long time, will focus on the comparison between the wet and dry
seasons: two to three weeks each at dry season in March and at wet
season in August. Intensive observation by rawinsonde are expected
to grab the onset and the decaying of the South-West Asian Monsoon.
These are planned from March to May and August to October.
Ten year (1980-89) mean monthly rainfall in Thailand is
shown in Fig. 3.3.
- Boundary layer observation will be carried out in order to
measure the flux and the balance of energy and water at
land surface. The study areas are selected as they will
cover typical landscapes of the target region of GAME-T,
such as forest, cultivated area (paddy field) and bare soil.
Some new scientific information are expected to be obtained.
- The effect of soil wetness on the evaporation from land surface
with vegetation, and the effect of rain water storage on runoff
generation will be observed in the Chao Phraya river basin in
Thailand where the difference between dry and wet season is large.
- The interaction between diurnal cycle of precipitation and
evapotranspiration, especially from intercepted water, will
- A method to estimate evaporation from soil temperature data
will be developed and validated.
- Large scale evapotranspiration will be estimated using the data
of lower part of atmospheric boundary layer from frequent rawinsonde
observation combined with satellite observation by NOAA/AVHRR/IR.
- Ground truth data will be observed for the validation of
earth observing satellites, and various hydro-meteorological
information in large domain will be retrieved in order to
estimate the flux and the balance of energy and water fluxes.
will be collected, observed and estimated.
Algorithms should be developed and or implemented to retrieve
precipitation using satellite remotesensing by GMS and/or TRMM.
- data from ground based radar, raingauges, and raindrop
size distribution for TRMM,
- the area of water surface and the distribution of surface
soil wetness for JERS-1/JSAR,
- surface soil wetness for RADARSAT,
- surface radiation and cloud for GMS/SVISSR, and
- landscape and the vegetation cover for NOAA/AVHRR
- Corresponding to the GAME strategy,
will be done. Combining these observation with the
hydro-meteorological data from the existing stations,
longterm monitoring of the energy and water balance
are planned. This observation aims the construction and
the improvement of one dimensional model to estimate
energy and water flux from land surface which may be covered
with vegetation. This in GAME corresponds to that of PILPS
- flux observations by GAME/AAN/AWS at five points of
monsoon forest, paddy field and shrubbery forest in
Thailand, tropical forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, and
vegetated area in Sri Lanka (Fig. 3.2).
- installation of a precise radiometer and a few radiometers,
which observes net radiation, in addition to the existing
- In order to obtain better atmospheric data from four dimensional
data assimilation, the rawinsonde observation should be enhanced
in the GAME-T region where upper air sounding by rawinsonde is
currently operated only once at 00 UTC (07 LST) in a day.
Four times daily soundings by radiosonde are expected at least
at three stations in Thailand, and two times daily or four times
daily observations will be recommended at other stations in the
target region of South-East Asia during the Intensive Observational
Period of GEWEX/GAME. These special observations should be
communicated through GTS line in real time, and 4DDA will be
performed at Japan Meteorological Agency.
- As a modelling study of the atmosphere, a meso-scale meteorological
model, Code for Aggregating Nested Atmosphere and Environment (CANAE),
is being developed and this will be nested in the atmospheric
general circulation model developed by CCSR/NIES. Land-surface
parameterization which calculates areal mean flux from each grid
by weighted averaging of fluxes from a few typical landscapes
will be employed in CCSR/NIES AGCM and CANAE. A distributed
hydrological model which uses output from CANAE, such as precipitation
and evapotranspiration, as its input will be independently
developed and the model is expected to have an ability to consider
the effect of artificial intake or storage.
- Objective analysis will be carried out for obtained data sets
in order to perform error checks and to make data handling
easier for everybody including possible scientific users of the
data outside of GAME project. Various data sets are objectively
interpolated and extrapolated into 10km grids, at least in the
Chao Phraya river basin, and gridded data of water and energy
flux will be made. In a larger domain, energy and water balance
estimated by 4DDA will be referred, and physical parameters such
as precipitation, evapotranspiration and net radiation will be
adjusted to satisfy the energy and water budget.
The rainy season starts late April to
the beginning of May, and the interannual variation is large in May.
During the dry season, from December to March, the rain is quite less
and soil dries up very much. Intensive observations are planned considering
GAME-T covers sub-tropical region of South-East Asia, including
countries such as Philippine, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore,
Indonesia and Sri Lanka. Data analysis will cover the entire region
but observations are planned mainly in Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
Because a lot of resources will be spent in Thailand, this implementation
plan mainly introduce about what is planned for the GAME-T
in Thailand and Malaysia (Fig. 3.4).
One dimensional energy and water flux will be measured at these
stations below in GAME-T. The distribution map of planned
stations of flux observation are illustrated in
for whole GAME-T area.
Net radiation and basic hydro-meteorological
parameters will be continuously observed in stations described below, and
time series of energy and water flux will be estimated and monitored.
Table 3.1: Land use in Thailand
||Farm Holding Land||Unclassified
|Northern ||106,028|| 48,214
|| 29,394 || 28,419
|| 28,629 || 21,117
|Southern || 44,197|| 8,406
|| 17,334 || 18,457
|Total||320,697 || 85,436
|| 133,076 || 102,184
Observing stations within the Chao Phraya river basin are a)-d) and
h). From the statistics of land use classification in Thailand
(1991, unit 1,000 rai = 160 ha),
the Northern region and the Central Plain almost correspond
to the upper and the lower part of ChaoPhraya basin, respectively.
Further, the land use of the Farm Holding Land can be divided in detail.
Land use classification of farm holding land in Thailand
|| 37,973 || 13,445
|| 209 || 395
|| 2,069 || 521
|Northern || 29,394
|| 15,197 || 10,475
|| 1,754 || 276
|| 134 || 432
|Central Plain || 28,629
|| 12,531 || 9,438
|| 4,379 || 309
|| 124 || 445
|Southern || 17,334
|| 3,612 || 150
|| 12,121 || 64
|| 53 || 676
|Total || 133,076
|| 3,536 || 69,313
|| 33,519 || 20,098
|| 858 || 707
|| 3,621 || 1,423
From these tables, one can see that half of the upper Chao Phraya river
basin is covered by forests, 30% is 'unclassified' and half of
cultivated area, namely 15% of total, is paddy field. The landscapes
of a), c) and b) are corresponding these major land uses. However,
Kog-Ma experimental basin, a), is located in higher altitude compared
to whole forest region in the ChaoPhraya river basin, and it may not
represent the energy and water flux of forest region in the area.
Shrubbery forest, c), is set up assuming that most 'unclassified' area
corresponds to such landscape. In this region, shrubs in plain area
is mixed with bare soil or small grasses.
Further detailed study on the land use is required,
especially investigating 'what is unclassified'.
Station h) is operated by the National Institute for Earth Science
and Disaster Prevention (NIED, Japan),
Research Development Corporation of Japan (JRDC, Japan) and
Royal Irrigation Department (RID, Thailand). Basic time interval of
operational hydro-meteorological data in Thailand is daily for TMD, RID,
RFD and EGAT, but more than thirty agrometrological stations of TMD,
three hourly data are manually recorded and soil temperature at several
depths are regularly observed. The data from these agrometeorological
stations may be used for flux estimation with additional measurement of
The experimental basin in Sri Lanka, g), will be serviced during the fiscal
year of 1996, and the longterm monitoring will be started from FY 1997.
Among these stations, a), b), c) and g) will be equipped with GAME/AAN-AWS
and it is possible that f) will, too.
- Kog-Ma experimental basin, Thailand, the Monsoon Forest:
98.9 E 18.8 N, 1268 m (by RFD in Thailand, Prof. Suzuki)
- West Sukhothai along with Route 1113, Thailand, non-irrigated
99.7 E 17.1 N, 50 m
(by RID in Thailand, Prof. Aoki, Prof. Sunada and Mr. Hirota)
- EGAT Tower¡¢Thailand, shrubbery forest:
99.4 E, 16.9 N, 140 m
(by EGAT in Thailand, Prof. Sunada, Dr. Sugita and Dr. Ohte)
- Moving observation in Y32/Y4 river basin, Thailand, various
(by Prof. Aoki, Prof. Sunada and Mr. Hirota)
- Pasoh forest reserve, Malaysia, tropical rain forest:
102.3 E 3.0 N, 120 m (by FRIM in Malaysia¡¢FFPRI: Dr. Tani)
- Sarawak, Malaysia, tropical rain forest:
114.0 E, 4.2 N, 300m
(by Prof. Suzuki)
- Experimental basin at University of Peradeniya, SriLanka, forest
and grass land:
80.6 E, 7.3 N, 800 m
(by University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka¡¢Prof. Tanaka, Prof. Shimada and
- Khuwae-Noi meso-scale experimental basin, Thailand:
100.3-101.1E 16.8-17.7N, 2,100-45m
(by NIED: Mr. Nakane, JRDC:Mr. Kurauchi and RID)
Table 3.3: Observed items at each observation station.
| Item || a) || b) || c)
|| d) || e) || f) || g) || h)
|Radiation () Budget||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Downward Shortwave ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||.
|Upward Shortwave ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||.
|Downward Longwave ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||.
|Upward Longwave ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||.
|Vertical Profile of ||+||.||+||.||+||+||.||.
|Wind Velocity () ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Vertical Profile of ||+||+||+||.||+||+||+||.
|Wind Direction ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Temperature () ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Vertical Profile of ||+||+||+||.||+||+||+||.
|Humidity () ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Vertical Profile of ||+||+||+||.||+||+||+||.
|Surface by IR ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||.
|T in soil layers ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Heat flow into ground ||@||@||@||+||@||@||@||@
|Pan evaporation ||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||@
|Water temperature ||.||@||.||.||.||.||.||.
|Water depth ||.||@||.||.||.||.||.||.
|Sensible heat by SAT ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||.
|Latent heat by IR ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||.
|Soil moisture ||@||@||@||.||@||@||@||@
|Interception by crown ||+||.||.||.||+||.||.||.
|Stomata conductance ||+||.||.||.||+||+||.||.
|Leaf area index ||+||.||.||.||+||+||.||.
|Sap velocity ||+||.||.||.||+||+||.||.
|Rawinsonde obs. ||+||+||.||.||.||.||.||.
|Data transmit by Sat. ||+||+||+||.||.||+||+||.
|Hight (m) of obs. tower ||50||10||100 || 10||40||50||30|| 6
|Soil properties ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||+
|land use ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||+
|digital elevation map ||+||+||+||+||+||+||+||+
|@||:|| continuous observation
|+||:|| only during the IOP
|.||:|| not planned
Secondary products estimated from these observations are:
- Longterm, hourly, at every station
- inter-calibrated radiation budget at land surface
- cross-calibrated heat transfer into soil layers
- sensible and latent heat flux by energy balance / Bowen method,
at paddy fields
- sensible and latent heat flux by bulk method
- sensible and latent heat flux by bulk method / Penman-Monteith method,
- Longterm, hourly, at some station
- sensible heat flux by GAME-AAN/AWS-SAT and latent heat flux by
- IOP, hourly, at some station
- sensible heat flux by Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer(SAT)
and latent heat flux by energy balance
- sensible heat flux by SAT and latent heat flux by covariance
measurement by infrared
- sensible and latent heat flux by profile method
- roughness parameters in each direction (time independent)
- sensible and latent heat flux using lower boundary layer information
obtained by rawinsonde
The information described below will be available from GAME-T sub-program
for the research in the field of meso-scale meteorology.
BRRAA's project itself is ``applied atmospheric resources research
program'' (AARRP) Phase II from 1994 through 1998, and they are
doing artificial rain enhancement by seeding clouds.
- upper air soundings by enhanced rawinsonde observation
- rain rates from ground based rain gauge
- radar images observed by conventional weather radar operated by TMD.
They are expected to be updated in 1997 and plans are underway to
make digital composite images. Currently operators are monitoring
PPI images in most radar sites, but radars at Bangkok DonMuang International
Airport and Phuket Island are replaced by a new radar system equivalent to
WSR-88D of United States. Data from Phuket Island radar is determined by
NASA to be one of the ground validation data for TRMM.
- Om Koi radar at 17 N 47'54", 98 E 25'57", 1,160m, operated by
BRRAA (Bureau of the Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation).
It is a S-band radar and range within 125 km are quantitatively used.
Three dimensional scans are made each five minutes by changing its
elevation angle up to 27 degree. Every radar data both reflectivity
and doppler velocity are recorded in 8mm tape regardless of rain or
no rain. This radar data is also determined as one of TRMM validation,
and all the data will be sent and archived at NASA/GSFC.
- raindrop size distribution to be installed, traditional type
disdrometer made in Switzerland.
- cloud parameters (temperature, humidity and cloud water) obtained by
air craft observations by BRRAA. BRRAA has 32 airplanes called CASA,
and there are approximately 100 pilots to operate them.
Therefore observed phenomena may be modified by artificial influences.
The cooperative study will be appreciated that evaluate and validate
the effect of seeding to rain enhancement using numerical
model of the atmosphere which can resolve each cloud.
- From the middle of March to the middle of May, the bottom of the
cloud is approximately 3,000 m and the cloud top is approximately
10,000 m. Ice crystal processes are dominating at the cloud top
and iodo-silver (AgI) are used for seeding.
- After the onset of south-west Asian monsoon through October,
the bottom of the cloud is approximately 1,333 m and the
cloud top is approximately 5,000 m. No ice crystal processes
are observed at the cloud top, and chlor-calcium (CaCl2) is
used for seeding.
Using these information, these studies will be possible.
- Surface soil wetness on the development of atmospheric mixing layer,
- micro-physical and dynamical processes generating individual clouds,
- diurnal cycle of precipitation and local circulations,
- torrential rainfall associated with cloud clusters or tropical
cyclones moving from the South China Sea or the Bay of Bengal,
- modulations of precipitating cloud clusters by super clusters or
convection centers organized by coupled effects of the Indian and
Pacific Oceans through equatorial planetary-scale waves,
- behaviors of the convection centers in the seasonal variation
and the continental-scale circulation, and
- interannual and global changes of the seasonal
and continental-scale rainfall variations.
However, promised output from GAME-T team is limited at present status.
Specialists in meso-scale meteorology are all encouraged to join
this subprogram for effective utilization of these valuable data.
- Areal rainfall distribution obtained from weather radar
with calibration using raingages will be prepared for
hourly in approximately 1 to 5 km meshes.
Several river catchments are designated for water balance studies and
hydrological modelling in the Chao Phraya Basin
These catchments are selected to make hierarchical structure in terms of
catchment size, as macro scale
(-- 100,000 km),
meso scale (10,000 km)
and micro scale (1,000 km).
Various hydro-meteorological parameters are objectively analyzed
into 10km grids by interpolation and extrapolation using
sensible and latent heat flux (3.2.2(1)), and
precipitation distribution (3.2.2(2)), existing operational network (3.2.3).
In addition to that, two kind of enhanced rawinsonde observations,
installing in a hydrological experimental basin, and installing
extra raingauges in the target area are planned.
List of candidate basins for hydrological budget studies and modelling
|Scale||Gauging Station (Town)||River
||Catchment area (km^2)||Observation||Rain gauges
| Micro Scale
||P.20 (Chiang Dao) ||Ping ||1,355
||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge
||5 ||Mountainous Forest
|P.4A (Mae Tang) ||Mae Tang (Ping)
||1,902 ||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge
||15 ||Mountainous Forest ||PWRI
|P.24A (Chom Thong)||N.Mae Klang (Ping)
||460 ||Stuff Gauge ||8
||Mountainous Forest, Paddy
||Doi.Inthanon irrigation, w-intake, much rainfall
|P.14 (Oblung gorge)||N.Mae Chaem
||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge|| ?
||EGAT Point (Hot)||Ping || 18,990
||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge||many
||Mountainous basin||upstream of Bumibol reservoir
|W.3A (Theon)||Wang ||8,985
||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge||many
||Mountainous basin ||major tributary
||C.2 (Nakon Sawan)||Chao Phraya||110,569
||Automatic Gauge and Stuff Gauge||quite many
- Enhanced rawinsonde observation (I)
It is closely related to the flux estimation in a large domain.
Evapotranspiration in large area will be estimated at least twice
during daytime using rawinsonde observation, and the evapotranspiration
at other time of the same day will be calculated using other continuous
measurements at ground surface. From this method
(Brutsaert and Sugita 1992, Sugita and Brutsaert 1991)
daily (and diurnal cycle maybe with lesser accuracy) evapotranspiration
will be obtained in large scale.
- flux observational station b) or c)
in the section of 3.2.2(1),
the middle of the ChaoPhraya river basin.
- 4--6 times per day at 00, 03, 06, 09, 12, 18 UTC,
it corresponds to 07, 10, 13, 16, 19, 01 LST.
|YEAR || Period || at
|1996||2 ||weeks ||in August
|1997||2 ||weeks ||in March and August, each
|1998||4 ||weeks ||
in March to May and August to September, each
|1999||2 ||weeks ||at March and August, each
No data will be observed by current implementation plan at this station
except for the above observational period. There is a TMD station at
Phitsanulok, but pilot balloon observations by manual operation
are performed up to 1,700 m for wind direction and speed.
- Large scale evapotranspiration on a day of good
weather condition during the scheduled period will be estimated.
- Enhanced rawinsonde observation (II)
It aims to improve the accuracy
of 4DDA data by increasing the number of observation from GAME-T region.
It will also be possible to apply atmospheric water balance method to
estimate large scale evapotranspiration and the change of
total water storage within the region using rawinsonde data
combined with precipitation and runoff data Oki et al. (1994).
shows the good correspondence of seasonal cycle between atmospheric vapor
flux convergence (adjustment was applied by a factor of 0.18)
and monthly river discharge. Fig. 3.7 compares a few
estimates of evapotranspiration, and such macro scale results will
be validated by surface flux observations.
There is operational rawinsonde observation once daily at 00 UTC
even out of enhanced observational period, and the vertical profiles
of wind direction and velocity, temperature and humidity are observed
up to approximately 25,000 m. During normal operation period,
rawin observation are scheduled at 06 and 12 UTC and pilot balloon
is used at 18 UTC. Both rawin and pilot balloon can observe only
wind direction and wind velocity and the possible observational
height by rawin observation is limited to approximately 15,000 m.
|CHIANG MAI || 98 59 E
||18 47 N|| 312 m||
|UBON RATCHATHANI || 104 52 E
||15 15 N|| 123 m||
|BANGKOK METROPOLIS || 100 34 E
||13 44 N|| 2 m||
|(||PHUKET || 98 24 E
||07 53 N|| 2 m||)
|(||SONGKHLA || 100 36 E
||07 12 N|| 4 m||)
- : Four times daily at 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC
|YEAR || Period || at
|1996||2 ||weeks ||in May and August
|1997||4 ||weeks ||in March to May and and August to
|1998||12 ||weeks ||
in March to May and August to October, each
|1999||4 ||weeks ||in March to May and August to
This enhanced rawinsonde observation will be carried out
by National Space Development Agency of Japan as a part of ground
validation experiment for ADEOS/TRMM in collaboration with TMD.
- Fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat (water vapor)
convergence to this region will be calculated from original rawinsonde
data. Atmospheric water balance may be also applied.
- Hydrological experimental basin
In correspondence to the flux station a), some existing weir will be improved
at Kog-Ma hydrological experimental basin and discharge will be
precisely observed. Katsesaert University will be mainly responsible
in operation and management. Instrumentation of discharge-gauging stations
may be installed in some meso-scale and micro-scale river basins (3.2.2(3))
- Runoff data will be provided by 10 minutes to 1 hour
- Installation of extra raingauges
The raingauges in the existing operational network tend to be located
in residential areas, and are rare in mountaneous region.
BRRAA is trying to distribute as evenly as possible, and approximately
ten raingauges will be offered in order to support their activity.
Another twenty rain gauges will be distributed in the Chao Phraya river
basin in order to improve the mean areal rain rate.
For example in the mountaneous area, installing stations at
400 m, 700 m, 1260 m, and 1685 m are planned at Mt. Doi Pui
where the Kog-Ma hydrological experimental basin is located.
Temperature and humidity will be possibly measured simultaneously.
In the Mae Chaem river basin where discharge is measured at P.14,
there are many experimental basins of RFD and it will be possible
to estimate areal mean rain rate accurately.
Modelling studies can be divided in these sub-components.
These are minimum requirement of modelling studies and
further sophisticated approaches will be highly appreciated.
- General circulation model : The latest version at that time
of CCSR/NIES AGCM will be used.
- Meso-scale meteorological model : CANAE model which uses
the parameterization schemes in CCSR/NIES AGCM and converted
into meso-scale dynamics is under development and will be used.
- Land surface parameterization for atmospheric models : 'Mosaic'
approach which classifies land surface of a grid into limited kinds
and give a uniform forcing from atmosphere to each landscape and
returns weighted mean flux to the atmosphere will be developed and used.
Runoff routing model will be also coupled with these meteorological
- Model to estimate the exchange of energy and water
between land and atmosphere : In addition to the big leaf treatment
of vegetation, which is sometimes used in the above c) type models,
a model which explicitly describes the vertical profiles of flux
and physical parameters within vegetation layer will be developed,
validated and improved. Such kind of a model will be necessary for
sparsely planted forest where energy and water are exchanged at
both the crown of the trees and the bed of forest.
- Runoff model for water resources prediction : A distributed
rainfall runoff model which utilizes digital topographic map,
land cover data, the distribution of soil property, etc., will be used.
Areal hydro-meteorological information given by other sub-project of
GAME-T will be used as input data. Artificial influences like intake
or storage in reservoirs will be considered as possible.
- These outputs are expected from this modelling studies
- Land surface parameterization schemes (c) will be calibrated or
validated by estimated fluxes by detailed land surface model (d).
- Run CANAE (b) using 4DDA data as initial and boundary condition
and calibrate or validate against observation (3.2.2(2) and 3.2.2(3)).
- Runoff model will be run by the output from above numerical experiment.
- Do the similar numerical experiments of ii) and iii) but using
output from AGCM or coupled general circulation model on global
warming and disaggregate the prediction in regional scales.
The hydro-meteorological data described below
has been collected or will be collected
from existing observational network.
If not specified, data catalogue will be compiled and offered to scientific
and engineering communities.
Daily precipitation will be collected from TMD, RID and EGAT in Thailand
totally at 300 points. Hourly data will be collected from BRRAA
at 40 to 50 stations.
Hourly data is available in Malaysia from Malaysian Meteorological Service.
Drainage and Irrigation Department of Malaysia is also observing precipitation.
Daily precipitation are planned to be collected from Philippine, Vietnam,
Singapore and Indonesia.
Monthly precipitation data at more than 50 stations in Sri Lanka has been
collected from 1900 to 1994. This data set has been published as a data book.
Areal rainfall distribution will be obtained in combination with radar
data and extra raingauge data.
Discharge data operationally measured are collected from RID and EGAT
- Discharge or the water stage will be converted into runoff height
by defining the watershed area.
In Thailand, TMD is observing and archiving above basic daily meteorological
variables in digital form. RID and EGAT are also observing
but there are no plan to collect data from them.
In Malaysia, MMS is archiving hourly data in digital form at major
In Sri Lanka, a part of the basic meteorological data has already
collected from 1900 to 1994.
There are no systematic network which observes radiation,
however, sunshine duration is measured at major meteorological
stations in Thailand.
In Sri Lanka, sunshine duration data from 1975 to 1994 has been
collected at 24 stations, and another 10 stations are only
from 1992 to 1994.
There are no observational network of soil moisture in Thailand.
LDD (Land Development Department) is joining to the project of
AARRP Phase II by BRRAA (see 3.2.2(2)), and they started a study
on drought prediction. Soil moisture will be observed at 50 stations
by 5 day intervals in this study. They say reliable data will be obtained
at least 20 of the 50 stations.
Daily tensio-meter data, which can be converted to soil moisture,
at 8 depths in a soil layer have been collected at two sites in Sri Lanka
from 1992 to 1994.
Soil temperature is measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 cm depth
by 3 hourly intervals at more than 30 agrometeorological stations of TMD
in Thailand. These data will be collected.
In Sri Lanka, 30 minutes interval data at 6 depths from March to October
1993 at University of Peradeniya have been collected.
Topographic map of 1:250,000 is available in Thailand, and
digital elevation data will be ready to be used in 1km grid unit.
In Sri Lanka, two scales of topographic map, 1:50,000 and 1 mile-1 inch,
cover whole the island and they have been collected.
Geological map of 1:250,000 is available in Thailand, and these will be
In Sri Lanka, a geological map of 1:1,000,000 has been collected.
Land use map of 1:250,000 is available in Thailand, and these will be
digitized. Land cover will be classified by satellite remotesensing
using NOAA/AVHRR or MOS1/MESSR, too.
In Sri Lanka, land use map and soil map of 1:1,000,000 have been collected.
- Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University
Macro scale hydrological modelling in ChaoPhraya river basin and
GIS management of hydrological and meteorological data
- Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University
Observation of hydrological processes in plain area
- Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
: Observation of hydrological processes in forests and
measurement of energy and water flux at paddy fields
- Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo
Land-atmosphere interaction at forest area in Thailand and Malaysia
- Faculty of Education, Fukushima University
Meso-scale phenomena in tropics associated with precipitation
- Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University
Variation of hydrological variables in plain area and
estimation of hydrological variables by satellite remotesensing
- Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University
Measurements of soil moisture in a large domain
- Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
Orographical effect on meso-scale disturbances in tropical atmosphere
- Faculty of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University
Large scale water balance
- Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI)
Observation in forestry experimental basin in Malaysia
- Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo
Climatological study on the time-space variation of precipitation
- Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station
Longterm monitoring of energy and water flux
- Institute for Hydrospheric Atmospheric Sciences (IHAS),
- : Data archive of atmospheric observation
- Institute of Engineering Mechanics, University of Tsukuba
Satellite remotesensing of hydrological variables
- Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba
Estimation of large scale fluxes using satellite remotesensing and
measurement of energy and water fluxes in Sri Lanka
- Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), University of Tokyo
Research management of GAME-T,
GIS/RS data-base development and management, and
meso-scale meteorological modelling.
- National Institute for Environmental Studies
Vegetation map estimated from satellite remotesensing
- National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention
: Hydrological cycle in meso-scale experimental river basin
- National Space Development Agency of Japan
Three dimensional structure of energy and water cycle in tropics and
TRMM ground validation experiments
- Numerical Prediction Division, Japan Meteorological Agency
Four dimensional data assimilation
- Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction
Soil moisture ground validation experiment using RADARSAT and
water balance study at Luang river basin
- Radio Atmospheric Science Center (RASC), Kyoto University
Study on the atmospheric disturbances in tropical atmosphere
- Bureau of the Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation (BRRAA),
- : Rain enhancement research and rainfall data collection.
- Center for Water Research (CWR), The University of Western Australia
: Macroscale hydrological modelling
- Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Observation and study on energy and water cycle in Sri Lanka
- Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), Malaysia
Operational observation of hydro-meteorological data
- Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Myanmar
Operational observation of hydro-meteorological data
- Electric Generation Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Thailand
Operational observation of hydro-meteorological data
- Forestry Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia
Study on energy and water cycle in forestry experimental basin
- Katsesaert University, Thailand
Observation at hydrological experimental basin and
macro scale hydrological modelling
- Malaysia Meteorological Service (MMS), Malaysia
Operational observation of hydro-meteorological data
- Meteorological Department, Singapore
Operational observation of hydrological and meteorological data
- Nangyang Technological University, Singapore
Data analysis and modelling of hydrometeorological observations
- National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Thailand
Research coordination and satellite remotesensing
- Royal Forestry Department (RFD), Thailand
Enhanced observation in forestry experimental basin and
rainfall observation in mountainous areas
- Royal Irrigation Department (RID), Thailand
Operational observation of hydrological and meteorological data and
intensive observation at plain area of the ChaoPhraya river basin
- Thai Meteorological Department (TMD), Thailand
Operational observation of meteorological data,
receiving NOAA satellite AVHRR data and
enhanced rawinsonde observation
- Longterm monitoring at plain area: RID
- Intensive observation at plain area:
FA U of Kyoto, FIAS Hiroshima U
- Longterm monitoring at forest: RFD, Katsesaert U
- Intensive observation at forest: FA U of Tokyo,
FA Tokyo U of A and T
- Enhanced rawinsonde observation: TMD, NASDA
- Analysis of rawinsonde data: IHAS Nagoya U, NASDA
- Observation at Sri Lanka : DG U of Peradeniya
- Receiving NOAA/AVHRR data: TMD
- Land cover and vegetation map: NRCT
- Receiving GMS/SVISSR data: IIS U of Tokyo
- Estimation of rainfall distribution: FE Yamanashi U
- Artificial influence on water cycle: IIS U of Tokyo
- Effect of deforestation on water cycle in forest area: Katsesaert U
- Scaling in hydrological modelling: CWR U of Western Australia,
- Evapotranspiration processes : FA U of Tokyo
- Macroscale hydrological modelling : DPRI Kyoto U
- Distribution of soil moisture : FE Yamanashi U
- Meso scale meteorological modelling : IIS U of Tokyo
- Operational hydro-meteorological observation:
RID, RFD, TMD, EGAT, MMS, DID
- Integrated database using GIS:
IIS U of Tokyo, IHAS Nagoya U, DPRI Kyoto U
- Longterm variation of water balance in Sri Lanka: IG U of Tsukuba
- Brutsaert and Sugita (1992)
- Brutsaert, W. and M. Sugita (1992).
Application of self-preservation in the diurnal evolution of the
surface energy budget to determine daily evaporation.
J. Geophys. Res. 97-D17, 18377-18382.
- Oki et al. (1995)
- Oki, T., K. Musiake, H. Matsuyama, and K. Masuda (1995).
Global atmospheric water balance and runoff from large river basins.
Hydrol. Proces. 9, 655-678.
- Sugita and Brutsaert (1991)
- Sugita, M. and W. Brutsaert (1991).
Regional surface fluxes from remotely sensed skin temperature and
lower boundary layer measurements.
Water Resour. Res. 27, 747-752.
|4DDA || Four-Dimensional (4D) Data Assimilation
|AAN || Asian AWS Network (GAME)
|AARRP || applied atmospheric resources research program (by BRRAA)
|ADEOS || Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (Japan)
|AGCM || Atmospheric General Circulation Model
|AVHRR || Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
|AWS || Automated Weather Station
|BRRAA || Bureau of the Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation
|CANAE || Code for Aggregating Nested Atmosphere and Environment
|CCSR || Center for Climate System Research, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
|CWR || Center for Water Research, The University of Western Australia
|DID || Department of Irrigation and Drainage (Malaysia)
|DPRI || Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University
|EGAT || Electric Generation Authority of Thailand
|FFPRI || Forestry and Forest Production Research Institute (Japan)
|FRIM || Forestry Research Institute Malaysia
|FY || Fiscal Year
|GAME || GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment
|GAME-T|| GAME Tropics
|GEWEX || Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
|GIS || Geographic Information System
|GMS || Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (Japan)
|GTS || Global Telecommunication System
|IHAS || Institute for Hydrospheric Atmospheric Sciences, Nagoya University
|IIS || Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo
|IOP || Intensive Observing Period
|IR || Infrared
|ISP || International Science Panel
|J-SAR || JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar
|JERS-1 || Japanese Earth Remote-sensing Satellite-1
|JRDC || Research Development Corporation of Japan
|LDD || Land Development Department (Thailand)
|LST || Local Standard Time
|MESSR || Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer
|MMS || Malaysia Meteorological Service
|MOS-1 || Marine Observation Satellite (Japan)
|NASA || National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA)
|NASDA || National Space Development Agency of Japan
|NIED || National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)
|NIES || National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan)
|NOAA || National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA)
|NRCT || National Research Council of Thailand
|PILPS || Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes
|PPI || Plan Position Indicator
|RADARSAT || Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite
|RFD || Royal Forestry Department (Thailand)
|RID || Royal Irrigation Department (Thailand)
|RS || remote sensing
|S-VISSR || Stretched Visible/Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (GMS)
|SAT || sonic anemometer thermometer
|SOI || Southern Oscillation Index
|TMD || Thai Meteorological Department, Thailand
|TRMM || Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (U.S.-Japan)
|UTC || Universal Time Coordinate
|WSR88D || NEXRAD Next Generation Weather Radar (also known as WSR88D)
Inter annual variation of rainfall in Thailand from May to July
and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).
Illustration of flux observation stations in whole GAME-T.
Mean monthly rainfall in Chao Phraya river basin. Mean from 1951
to 1988 is averaged from 7 obsering stations by Thai Meteorological Department.
Error bars indicate the standard deviation.
Comprehensive illustration of planned observation in
Thailand and Malaysia.
Scales of Hydrologic Modelling for Chao Phraya River Basin.
Corrected Monthly vapor flux convergence and discharge
(mm/month) in Chao Phraya River.
Large scale monthly evapotranspiration (mm/month)
in Chao Phraya river. Comparison among estimations by the
atmospheric water balance method using corrected vapor flux convergence
and precipitation, by ECMWF model forecast, and by Penman equation.
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GAME-T Home Page at IIS/T.Oki.
(Last updated at
Sunday, 19-Apr-1998 14:46:01 JST,